February 21, 2023
Ice Monsters currently exist only in the Tohoku region of Japan. Photographs of Ice Monsters are discovered in Mt. Muine, Mt. Nagao, Mt. Yokote, Mt. Neko and Mt. Kaminodake and documents written about Ice Monsters are discovered in Mt. Piyashiri, Mt. Chisenupuri, Mt.Yotei, Mt.Nisekoannupuri and Mt. Makita. Before the 1960s, Ice Monsters existed from Hokkaido to Ishikawa Prefecture of Japan.
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There are two types of “Jyuhyo” on mountain in winter, “Ebinoshipo (Shrimp Tails） Type” and “Aisumonsuta (Ice Monsters) Type”. Shrimp Tails are frozen supercooled water droplets on trees and are found in snowy mountains around the world. Ice Monsters are formed only in Japan. In winter, strong northwest monsoon winds blow down from Siberia to Japan. Supercooled water droplets adhere to conifers (Abies mariesii in Mainland and Abies sachalinensis in Hokkaido), and icing, snowfall, and sintering are repeated. Severe weather conditions such as temperature (-10 to -15°C), wind speed (10 to 15 m/sec), wind direction (mainly northwesterly winds during winter), high humidity, and presence of supercooled water droplets are necessary for Ice Monsters to occur. Currently, there are Ice Monsters in the Tohoku region, including Mt. Hakkoda (Aomori Prefecture), Mt. Hachimantai (Iwate Prefecture), Mt. Moriyoshi (Akita Prefecture), Mt. Zao (Yamagata Prefecture), and Mt. Azuma (Yamagata Prefecture). In order to obtain past informations about Ice Monsters, old photographs and old documents related to Ice Monsters were examined.
Photographs of Ice Monsters are discovered in Mt. Muine (Hokkaido), Mt. Nagao (Hokkaido), Mt. Yokote (Nagano Prefecture), Mt. Neko (Nagano Prefecture) , Mt. Kaminodake (Toyama Prefecture) and Mt. Hakusan (Ishikawa Prefecture).
Descriptions about Ice Monsters are found at Mt. Piyashiri (*1), at Mt. Chisenupuri (*2), at Mt.Yotei (*3), at Mt.Nisekoannupuri (*3) and Mt. Makita (*4).
Before the 1960s, Ice Monsters were located 50-60 km inland from the Sea of Japan, from Hokkaido to Ishikawa Prefecture. Due to global warming, habitat area of Ice Monsters are decreasing. Today, Ice Monsters are located only in the Tohoku region.
*1 Kyuya Fukada (1941) Jyuhyo (Ice Monster)., Sanchosanroku (Summit and Foothills), 282-289,
Kaizosha (in Japanese).
*2 Kazuo Tanabe (1937) Ice Monster of Mt. Zao., Seppi (Snow Cornice), 142-145,
Maruzen (in Japanese).
*3 Kazuo Ogasawara (1968) Ice Monster of Mt. Zao., Chiri (Geography), Vo.13, 86-92 (in Japanese).
*4 Kazuo Tanabe (1936) Story of Ice Monsters., Yama (Mountain), Vo.3, 24-29 (in Japanese)..
Dr. Kazuo Tanabe, principal of Matsue High School, clarified formation processes of Ice Monsters in 1930 for the first time in the world. Dr. Kazuo Ogasawara, Professor of Shibaura Institute of Technology, was chief researcher of the "Comprehensive Research of Ice Monsters at Mt. Zao " funded by the Ministry of Education in 1968. Mr. Kyuya Fukada was one of Japan's leading climbers who created "100 Top Mountains of Japan" in 1964, learned about Ice Monsters from Dr. Kazuo Tanabe. They were very famous in the fields of mountains, snow and ice, and were very familiar with Ice Monsters.
[Mt.Piyasiri, Hokaido, 44.4N, 987m]
A description of the Ice Monster at Mt. Piyasiri in Hokkaido is found in a document written by Mr. Kyuya Fukada (*1).
[Mt. Chisenupuri, Hokkaido, 42.9N, 1134m]
A description of the Ice Monsters at Mt. Chisenupuri in Hokkaido is found in a document written by Dr. Kazuo Tanabe (*2).
[Mt. Yotei, Hokkaido, 42.9N, 1898m]
A description of the Ice Monsters at Mt. Yotei in Hokkaido is found in a document written by Dr. Kazuo Ogasawara (*3).
[Mt. Nisekoannupuri, Hokkaido, 42.9N, 1308m]
A description of the Ice Monsters at Mt. Nisekoannupuri in Hokkaido is found in a document written by Dr. Kazuo Ogasawara (*3).
[Mt. Hakkoda, Aomori Prefecture, 40.7N, 1584m]
[Mt. Hachimantai , Iwate Prefecture , 40.0N, 1613m]
[Mt. Moriyoshi , Akita Prefecture, 40.0N, 1454m]
[Mt. Zao , Yamagata Prefecture, 38.2N, 1600m]
[Mt. Azumayama , Fukushima Prefecture , 37.7N, 2035m]
[Mt. Makihata, Niigata Prefecture , 37.0N, 1967m]
A description of the Ice Monsters at Mt. Makihata in Niigata Prefcture is found in a document written by Dr. Kazuo Tanabe (*4).